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  • Charles V
    Charles of Habsburg (1500-1558) inherited in 1516 from his four grandparents - Maximilian of Austria (Habsburg) and Mary of Burgundy (ie the Netherlands), and Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Austrian duchies, the Netherlands with Comté (what remained of Burgundy), in addition to Spain, the Spanish dominions in Italy, and the Spanish empire in Central and South America was growing rapidly. In 1519 was elected Holy Roman Emperor in a struggle with Francis I of France. Much of his success lay in bribes distributed judicious that German voters and his ministers by the large sums of money borrowed by the Fugger banking. In 1526, when the last independent king of Hungary fell in the Battle of Mohacz against the Turks, the younger brother of Charles V, Ferdinand, inherited his crown and therefore added to the possessions of the Habsburgs a position of significant power in Central Europe. The first support he received Carlos V was the origin of his subjects: the population of the Netherlands, and especially its nobility. Castilla, however, reacted with a rebellion input of cities and civil war, won the noble war for the monarchy. Consequently, Charles V Castilla found more support than any other place, he offered lavish rewards his followers captaincies, generalates coronelías and their armies to the nobles and even provincial governments viceroyalties in Spain, Italy and the New World to large, bishoprics and cardinals to clergy and dazzling career lawyers and managers advice. Aggressive and imperialist tendencies of the patronage system could not have been more clearly demonstrated . Adapting a phrase coined in the nineteenth century to the British Empire , we can say that the empire of Charles V was a vast outreach system voltages Spanish upper classes . At the end of the reign of the emperor , is considered his empire was clearly Spanish , and from there come many problems . Other European countries , especially France , fought against the emperor whenever they could . The very vastness of his empire and the dispersion of power centers facilitated the attacks. Time after time , in order to cope with a military emergency in any part of Europe , Charles was forced to stop promising campaigns against the Turks , or agree with the German Protestants , or accept that the pope postpone the general council Church . Charles V failed to solve the problem of the German Protestants and , against his will , had to accept that his brother Fernando , and his son Philip , to succeed him as emperor. Finally also failed to defeat the Turks nor the franceses.En or 1555-1556 , frail , abdicated and retired to a cottage next to the monastery of Yuste . However had consolidated the Spanish possessions in Italy , had contained the Turkish advance in the Mediterranean and in Hungary , had forced the Pope Paul III to convene the first session of the Council of Trent and , shortly before his abdication , had married his son Philip with the Queen of England . The latter was apparently a brilliant move and profound consequences , but Carlos could not know that the Queen of England , Mary Tudor , would die the same year he childless .