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  • Philip II
    Philip II was the son of Charles I and Queen Isabella of Portugal. Born in Valladolid (Spain) in 1527.Creó the largest private library in the world, with express intention of making it available to mirror todos.Su single source of emulation and insecurity, was his father. The acusadísimo sense of responsibility that dominated him throughout his life born of obedience to the emperor and the hidden desire to overcome it. Carlos V could not bequeath the German Empire as they had wanted both, but the ongoing project of an empire atlantic formidable, with Spain as an essential part, installed on both sides, overlooking the Pacific and Mediterranean backs keeping. The main problem was inherited religious division of Europe, could not remedy Carlos and became the essential problem of Philip and all of Europe. Developed by destination and conviction in defending Catholicism against Protestantism Rome, was, interestingly, the only king of his time dressed as a bourgeois of the followers of Calvin. He went to Mass walk, he stood in the street to talk to children, or elderly beggars, and they drank the water offered to him. Orphaned at age 12, became accustomed to control his emotions and his extreme courtesy as he prepared to collaborate with his father the emperor, soon disposed of a prince as smart as discreet. At 17 he was already effective regent and was married very young and fat Maria Manuela of Portugal, who died in childbirth of the firstborn, Carlos, a curse of birth. Widowed at age 18, went around Europe at 21 and captivated all courts: handsome, cultured, refined, sensitive ... In 1554 he traveled to England to marry Mary Tudor in love with him for the superb portrait of Moro. Felipe did not correspond to that passion, though it was very considerate of his wife unattractive. The friction of his entourage with the English court did not affect the behavior never Spanish prince who apparently also love Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn and future queen and rival.In 1556, his father Philip received the crown of Spain, its huge key domains. The emperor died at Yuste in 1558, the same year that Philip was widowed a second time. By then he had achieved his greatest military victory on the ground. San Quentin , crushing the French. The result of a dream and that victory was his great work personal, cultural , religious and political : the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial . The Great Atlantic project involved the encirclement of France and traced by Ferdinand and peace with England . So widower tried to marry Isabel . However, the nobility of England would not accept a future contingency Spain and Isabel consolidation resulted in the cancellation of the wedding and its increasing inclination to Protestantism , which tried to stop Philip and Elizabeth 's excommunication by Rome . England , the ally desirable , not accounted for . And Philip and Elizabeth , they could be lovers , then married , became intimate enemies , radical .Pacified relations with France by the treaty of Cateau - Cambresis and in 1560 married the young and sexy Isabel de Valois , originally intended for his son Carlos . Marriage to Isabel gave way to the best time of his life , and settled in Spain with El Escorial in place , and two daughters , Elizabeth and Anne of Austria Catalina.Mas later would be his fourth wife . The worst was the revolt of the Netherlands , with men who had been his paladins , as Egmont and Montigny , after William of Orange , turned into enemies to ruthlessly liquidated . Neither the repression of the Duke of Alba , atrocious or machinery of the Inquisition, not even the formidable victory of his bastard brother John of Austria at Lepanto against the Turks relented . Instead , Don Juan became an obsession , as international figure with royal aspirations Philip neither could nor wanted to please.